Cartier, Jacques


Cartier, Jacques
(1491-1557)
   In 1534, sailing out of St. Malo, made his first voyage to the New World, entering the Gulf of St. Lawrence by way of the Straits of Belle Isle, landing on the Gaspé shore, and coasting around the eastern end of Anticosti. Returned to France. The following year again sailed to the gulf, and entered the river St. Lawrence. Continuing his voyage, passed the mouth of the Saguenay, and landed on the Island of Orleans, which he named Île Bacchus. Brought his little ships into the St. Charles River, upon whose banks stood the Indian village of Stadaconé. After exploring the St. Lawrence as far as the Indian town of Hochelaga (Montreal), returned to Stadaconé, where he wintered. In the spring of 1536 sailed back to France, taking with him the Iroquois chief, Donnacona. In 1541, made a third voyage to Canada. Roberval was to have followed with a number of colonists, but did not actually sail until the spring of 1542. When he reached Newfoundland, he met Cartier on his way home. Roberval's colony proved disastrous, and Cartier undertook a fourth voyage to the New World to rescue the survivors.
   Index: Ch Names Hare Island, 13; ravages of scurvy among his men, 23; finds a remedy in the plant aneda, 29; Membertou pretends to have met him in 1534, 36; his winter quarters identified by Champlain, 44-45; his Rivière de Fouez identified as the St. Maurice, 52. F His voyages, 1; attempt at colonization, 2. L With his men, receives communion from bishop of St. Malo, 7. C Sir Georges É. Cartier a descendant of the explorer's family, 3.
   Bib.: For a complete list of the original editions of Cartier's voyages, see Harrisse, Notes pour Servir, etc. Tross, Paris, reprinted them as follows: D'Avezac, Bref Récit et Succinte Narration de la Navigation Faite par le Capitaine Jacques Cartier aux Îles de Canada, etc. (1863); Michelant et Ramé, Voyage de Jacques Cartier au Canada en 1534 (1865); Michelant et Ramé, Relation Originale, du Voyage de Jacques Cartier au Canada en 1534 (1867). The first English version is that of Florio (1580). In 1600 Hakluyt included a more accurate translation in his Principal Navigations. H. B. Stephen's essay, Jacques Cartier and his Voyages to Canada, is accompanied by a new translation of the voyages. The Cartier voyages are discussed in the Trans. R. S. C., by W. F. Ganong (1887), (1889); Paul de Gazes (1884), (1890); Abbé Verreau (1890), (1891), (1897); Archbishop Howley (1894); and in the Quebec Lit. and Hist. Soc. Trans., Voyages de Découvertes au Canada (1843); Demazieres, Notes sur Jacques Cartier (1862).
   See also Pope, Jacques Cartier; Winsor, Cartier to Frontenac; Parkman, Pioneers of France; Des Longrais, Jacques Cartier; Dionne, La Nouvelle France de Cartier à Champlain; Dent, Can. Por.
   [Illustration: Landing of Jacques Cartier at Quebec, 1535 From the painting by A. Suzor Cote]

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